5 useful Chinese conjunctions

As a continuation of our article on Chinese sentence patterns, here are 5 useful Chinese conjunctions that will help you in understanding Chinese sentence structure and how to string ideas together in a coherent sentence. The following examples were all taken from news that happened in the last 24 hours – click on the ‘Example’ links to view the original articles. Synonyms for each of the words have also been included and in most situations these words are interchangeable. If you have any questions or ideas about using these words then leave a comment below.

而且

Pinyin: ér qiě
English: in addition, furthermore
Similar: 並且

Example:

李先生遇到了一件怪事:他媳婦好幾年都不開車了,可在毫不知情的情況下,駕照竟被扣了6分,而且罰款錢都交了

李先生遇到了一件怪事:他媳妇好几年都不开车了,可在毫不知情的情况下,驾照竟被扣了6分,而且罚款钱都交了

lǐ xiān shēng yù dào le yī jiàn guài shì: tā xí fù hǎo jǐ nián dōu bú kāi chē le, kě zài háo bú zhī qíng de qíng kuàng xià, jià zhào jìng bèi kòu le 6 fēn, ér qiě fá kuǎn qián dōu jiāo le

Mr Li discovered something strange, his daughter-in-law hadn’t driven for years, and was completely oblivious that she had received 6 penalty points on her driving licence, in addition the fine had also been paid

於是 (于是)

Pinyin: yú shì
English: therefore, as a result, consequently
Similar: 因此/所以

Example:

詐騙集團假扮成員警說這名婦人涉嫌洗錢,要他到銀行櫃檯領錢,這名婦人領錢時看到櫃檯旁的反詐騙文宣,驚覺自己受騙,於是透過紙條暗示櫃檯行員

诈骗集团假扮成员警说这名妇人涉嫌洗钱,要他到银行柜台领钱,这名妇人领钱时看到柜台旁的反诈骗文宣,惊觉自己受骗,于是透过纸条暗示柜台行员

zhà piàn jí tuán jiǎ bàn chéng yuán jǐng shuō zhè míng fù rén shè xián xǐ qián, yào tā dào yín háng guì tái lǐng qián, zhè míng fù rén lǐng qián shí kàn dào guì tái páng de fǎn zhà piàn wén xuān, jīng jué zì jǐ shòu piàn, yú shì tòu guò zhǐ tiáo àn shì guì tái háng yuán

A group of scammers impersonating police officers told the woman she had been involved in money laundering, and requested that she go to the bank and withdraw money. When she was withdrawing the money she noticed an anti-fraud poster next to the counter and felt that she was in fact being cheated, as a result she used a piece of paper to secretly notify the bank employee

至於(至于)

Pinyin: zhì yú
English: as for, regarding
Similar: 關於/對於

Example:

至於有哪些安全問題是大學生經常發生的呢?以國立中正大學為例,學校附近的豐收派出所經常處理的就是學生車禍的意外事件。

至于有哪些安全问题是大学生经常发生的呢?以国立中正大学为例,学校附近的丰收派出所经常处理的就是学生车祸的意外事件。

zhì yú yǒu nǎ xiē ān quán wèn tí shì dà xué shēng jīng cháng fā shēng de nē? yǐ guó lì zhōng zhèng dà xué wéi lì, xué xiào fù jìn de fēng shōu pài chū suǒ jīng cháng chŭ lǐ de jiù shì xué shēng chē huò de yì wài shì jiàn.

As for which safety problems are most likely to affect university students, using Zhong Zheng University as an example, traffic accidents are the most frequent problem that the local police station has to deal with.

其實(其实)

Pinyin: qí shí
English: actually, in fact
Similar: 事實上

Example:

「維基解密」與國際五家知名大報在洩密上密切合作的內情終於公開,這些原被視為被動接受機密資料的報紙,其實積極參與洩密過程

“维基解密”与国际五家知名大报在泄密上密切合作的内情终于公开,这些原被视为被动接受机密资料的报纸,其实积极参与泄密过程

“wéi jī jiě mì” yŭ guó jì wŭ jiā zhī míng dà bào zài xiè mì shàng mì qiè hé zuò de nèi qíng zhōng yú gōng kāi, zhè xiē yuán bèi shì wéi bèi dòng jiē shòu jī mì zī liào de bào zhǐ, qí shí jī jí cān yŭ xiè mì guò chéng

The inside story about the close relationship in leaking secrets between “Wikileaks” and five well known international newspapers has finally been revealed, the newspapers, who were originally considered to be passively receiving classified information, were actually proactive participants in the leaking process

然而

Pinyin: rán ér
English: however, but, yet
Similar: 但是/不過

Example:

大部分居民對出入嚴寒雪地都有很多經驗。然而,每年秋冬期間,有些駕車人士往往忽略冬季雪地駕車需要注意的事項。

大部分居民对出入严寒雪地都有很多经验。然而,每年秋冬期间,有些驾车人士往往忽略冬季雪地驾车需要注意的事项。

dà bù fèn jū mín duì chū rù yán hán xuě dì dōu yǒu hěn duō jīng yàn. rán ér, měi nián qiū dōng qí jiān, yǒu xiē jià chē rén shì wǎng wǎng hū lüè dōng jì xuě dì jià chē xū yào zhù yì de shì xiàng.

Most residents have a lot of experience with going outside in severe snow conditions. However, every year in autumn and winter there are some drivers who frequently ignore the important points that winter drivers should take notice of.

Keep an eye out for more articles of this nature as we explore more important sentence structures and usage in coming weeks. If you have a preference about the type of areas you would like us to cover then we are always open to suggestions.

(note: As Carl mentions in the comments, a few of these words are seen more in written form. Though they are still all very common words and essential learning for any student of Chinese. 而且, 其實 and a lot of the synonyms are also common in verbal Chinese too)

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  • This is a useful post, but you might wanna add a caveat that some of these are quite formal (書面語), e.g. 於是, 然而, etc.

    • Hi Carl, Thanks for the reply. I came from a news reading standpoint so some of them are quite formal and geared toward reading Chinese, though all essential to know nevertheless. I’ll add a note to the post.
      Dave