We’ve neglected the beginner here at Chinesehacks, in a mix of news and idioms we’ve forgotten that there are people who are just beginning to learn Chinese, or people who just want to learn a few important Chinese keywords before visiting China or Taiwan. So here starts a new series of posts that will cover some essential Chinese words and how they are used in natural speech using basic examples. Even if you’re not a beginner you should find these posts useful as a refresher.
To start of this new series we’ll be looking at groups of basic verbs. These groups have been chosen because they represent the key words you’d need to know to be able to ask for and explain basic situations in Chinese. If you have any ideas about words or phrases to add to the groups then please let us know in the comments.
The word for speak is very important to learn since you’ll either be asking people if they can speak English of they’ll be asking you if you can speak Chinese. In the example below 會（会 huì）means “can” as in “are able to”. If you see any words that you aren’t sure of the after reading the examples see if you can guess the meaning and if not as a last resort check the dictionary. We’ll likely be covering these words in later lessons, too.
To speak Chinese
nǐ huì shuō zhōngwén ma?
Can you speak Chinese?
In the following example 在（在 zài）means to be “in the process of”, so here it modifies 說 from “say” into ‘saying’.
tā zài shuō shénme?
What is he saying?
See, Watch and Read
While in English you read a book, watch television and see a movie, in Chinese you only need to learn one word, 看. It’s extremely versatile and has many uses beyond the examples here, but for know we’ll focus on the three definitions above.
To see a movie
nǐ zhège xīngqí liù yào qù kàn diànyǐng ma?
Do you want to go and see a movie this Saturday?
To watch television
wǒ hěn xǐhuān kàn diànshì
I really like watching television
To read a book
wǒ zuótiān wǎnshàng dōu zài kàn shū
I spent yesterday evening reading a book
Listen and hear
While not as versatile as 看 it is still very useful as you’ll see in the Understanding section below.
Listening to music
wǒ chángcháng tīng yīnyuè
I often listen to music
Can you hear?
In the example below 到（dào） is used, which usually means “to arrive”, here if we imagine the thing that is arriving is the noise to your ear it will make sense.
nǐ tīngdàole ma?
Did you hear that?
There are many words for understanding, but for basic Chinese let’s just focus on this one to start since it’s very useful for beginners and you’ll run into it often.
Do you understand?
nǐ dǒng bù dǒng?
Do you understand (or not) ?
wǒ dǒng le
I understand (now)
In the example above 了 is used to express a change in state and changes the meaning from ‘I understand’ which could mean that you already understand, to ‘now I understand’, as in – after your explanation, now I understand.
Using the words we have already learnt above we can make some very useful sentences. To say that you can understand something by listening to it, or by reading it is different in Chinese:
Do you understand (from listening/seeing)
When you’re learning Chinese you’ll likely heat this sentence a lot, so get used to it 🙂
nǐ tīng de dǒng ma?
Do you understand? (what you are hearing/from listening)
Likewise, for reading or seeing the construct is the same:
nǐ kàn de dǒng ma?
Do you understand? (what you are reading/from seeing)
The examples above should cover the verbs for basic situations involving speaking, seeing, listening and understanding. Let us know how you get on using them or if you have any questions or additions then please post below.
Keep an eye out for the next in the series covering essential verb groups for basic Chinese!